Thyroid Hormone
Health care

Thyroid Hormone is a big Curse for our health

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Deficiency Of Thyroid Hormone is a big Curse for our health

Deficiency of thyroid hormone due to primary disease of the thyroid or secondary to pituitary or hypothalamic failure is called Hypothyroidism which brings a big curse to our health.

Causes

1.Iodine deficiency- People in the mountain region are affected mostly

2.AutoImmune-

  • Hashimoto’s thyroidistis
  • Spontaneous atrophic hypothyroidism
  • Graves’s diseases with TSH receptor –blocking antibodies

3.Iatrogenic-

  • Radioactive iodine ablation
  • Thyroidectomy
  • Drugs: Carbimazole, propylthiouracil

4.Congenital-

  • Thyroid aplasia
  • Dyshormonogenesis

5.Infiltrative-

  • Amyloidosis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Riedel’s thyroiditis

6.Transient thyroiditis

  • Subacute thyroiditis
  • Post partum thyroiditis
  • Thyroid hormone treatment withdrawn

7.Secondary hypothyroidism

  • Tsh deficiency

Among all of these Iodine deficiency, autoimmune, radioactive iodine ablation ,Thyroidectomy and Carbimazole are most common causes.

Symptoms Of Hypothyroidism

  • Goiter
  • Anorexia
  • Weight gain
  • Malaise or tiredness
  • Cold intolerance
  • Depression
  • Poor memory
  • Poor libido
  • Change in appearance
  • Puffy eyes
  • Constipation
  • Dry Hair and skin\
  • Deafness
  • Muscle weakness

In generally we can see some general features as dull, expressionless and puffy face ,goiter may present. Overweight and tiredness are seen. Patient feel cold intolerance .Hoarseness of voice is also present.

Neurological features of Hypothyroidism

  • Slow speech
  • Poor memory
  • Psychosis
  • Depression
  • Delayed Cerebration
  • Deafness
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Myotonia
  • Hypotonia

Reproductive features of Hypothyroidism

  • Mennorhagia
  • Infertility
  • Impotence
  • Poor libido
  • Galactorrhoea

Gastrointestinal  features of Hypothyroidism

  • Constipation
  • Ileus
  • Ascitis

Dermatological features of Hypothyroidism

  • Periorbital puffiness
  • Non-pitting oedema of hands and feet
  • Dry ,brittle and unmanageable hair
  • Alopecia
  • Skin is thick,coarse and dry

Haematological features of Hypothyroidism

  • Anaemia
  • Macrocytosis
  • Hypercholesterolaemia
  • Hyponatraemia

Musculoskeletal features of Hypothyroidism

  • Muscle stiffnes
  • Muscle weakness
  • Pain in the muscle
  • Arthralgia
  • Percussion myxedema
  • Muscular hypertrophy

Investigation of Hypothyroidism

1.Thyroid function test shows-

serum TSH estimation elevated

free and total T4 estimation low

free and total T3 estimation low

radioactive Iodine 131 uptake by the Thyroid gland reduced

2.Chest Xray shows

Enlarged Cardiac shadow(due to Cardiomyopathy or pericardial effusion

Features of Cardiac failure

Pleaural effusion

3.Electrocardiogram shows-

Low voltage complexes

Sinus bradycardia

Non specific ST segment and T wave abnormalities

 

4.Non specific Laboratory abnormalities

 

Some seum enzymes like creatinine kinages and cholesterol raised

Hb% reduced

Serum Sodium also decreased

 

5.Test for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis-

Thyroid antibodies may be demonstrated in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

 

Treatment of Hypothyroidism:

 

Life -long Thyroxine therapy will be required for the patient

Thyroxine should be start slowly, It means with low dose otherwise if patient start with high dose he or she may have angina attack.

Thyroxine has a half life of 7 days so it should be taken as a single daily dose. It should be continued at least 6 weeks pass before repeating thyroid function tests then it should be adjusted by physicians advice. The correct dose of Thyroxine in the long term is that which restores serum TSH to within the reference range.Reduction of weight and periorbital puffiness occrs quickly,but the restoration of skin and hair texture may take about 3-6 months.

 

Food and life style advice for Hypothyroidism 

 

Food rich with antioxidant, selenium and tyrosine can benefit the thyroid gland and these can also improve overall health in Hypothyroidism. But we should always avoid fried fast food meals, excess sugar containing treats chocolates, cookies, cake, pastry and ice cream also alcohol and salty processed foods to keep us healthy.

Exercise help us in reducing weight gain and it is the best medicine for our cardiac fitness.

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